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How does gender intersect with agriculture?

Gender is closely linked with food insecurity. Gender based inequalities all along the food production chain impede an equal attainment of food security for men and women. Women are disproportionately responsible for providing food to their families, yet face barriers to land ownership, the agricultural supply chain, and markets. CARE’s work encompasses agriculture, economic development, natural resources management and climate change to develop new tools and models that increase agricultural productivity, nutrition, environmental sustainability, profitability and equity among marginalized women, girls and their families.

The US Presidential Initiative, Feed the Future (FTF) has a welcomed gender component. This initiative, and USAID more broadly, is applying increasingly rigorous gender requirements during award selections. FTF places an emphasis on women’s contributions in agriculture and food security and the need to address gender concerns as part of successful strategies in overcoming global hunger. FTF cites investments in inclusive agriculture sector growth (disaggregated by sex and income) and improved nutritional status, especially of women and children, as key objectives in its results framework. CARE has country programs in 18 of the 20 focal countries and is currently developing guidance for COs to integrate gender throughout FTF proposals and projects. For more information about these documents that are in development, please contact

Integrating Gender Activities and Results into FNS and WEE Programming: A Case Study from Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana and Mali

Between August 2012 and August 2016, CAREs Canada, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana and Mali ran a food and nutrition security and women's economic empowerment program called Linking Initiatives, Stakeholders and Knowledge to Achieve Gender Sensitive Livelihood Security (or LINKAGES for short). This program included concrete gender specific and gender integrated programming and results measurement activities that changed agency, relations and some parts of the structures that affect the lives of over 23,000 women and girls (70% of project beneficiaries), and men and boys.

Why is LINKAGES a good example of gender integration into FNS programming?


LINKAGES was implemented by ordinary CARE teams operating under typical development conditions. There was no fleet of gender advisors or pots of funding for special gender work. Teams themselves made the commitment to achieve gender goals and devised their own creative solutions to complex operational problems.

LINKAGES teams changed their processes of activity implementation to make sure that women could play a stronger or more equal role. They listed women as “head of household” in their databases even when those women were married to a man. They offered daycare with training and they invited men to traditional women's activities in nutrition and health.

LINKAGES completed the key management activities for good gender equality programming throughout the project cycle: it included gender analysis at baseline, mid-term and end-line; reported against a gender strategy; included context appropriate, gender specific programming; and it learned from gender equality results information collected using mixed monitoring and evaluation methods.

Where can I learn more about LINKAGES' gender work?

The slide presentation and related documentation below tells the LINKAGES gender story. You can participate in a mock gender marker evaluation of LINKAGES by tuning into the WebEx sessions scheduled for October and November 2016, advertised on multiple CARE listservs.

Visit the English language presentation on LINKAGES' gender work here!

Reference documents showing good examples of gender equality theory of change, gender equality M&E tools, baseline analysis, research learning and other gender work are posted below.






6._care-linkages_publication-en.pdf 8._care-linkages_publication-sp.pdf 7._care-linkages_publication-fr.pdf

9._universal_indicators_measurement_guide.docx 9._universal_indicators_measurement_guide_french_version.docx 9._universal_indicators_measurement_guide_spanish_version.docx




Land Rights

CARE Mozambique:

  • Land Demarcation and Delimitation: preparing communities for investment: this report assesses current practices in Mozambique with regards to land delimitation and demarcation (including CARE’s and its partners) and the extent to which it really protects communities against land grabs. The report then presents additional steps to be taken / piloted to increase communities’ protection against land grabs and better position / prepare communities to negotiate with investors. Special attention is dedicated to the challenges facing women in this process.
  • Guide on how to prepare communities for investments: The guide draws from the Avante Consulta tool designed for the forestry sector and includes a tool in respect to consultation processes. The tool consists of a set of steps that aim to empower the communities in these consultations. The tool is designed to be applied in situations where the co-management of natural resources is being encouraged and the poor must compete with other, often stronger, stakeholders to ensure that their rights are recognized. Special attention is dedicated to including women in this process.

CARE Tanzania Women and Agriculture Gender Analysis Report April 2010)

This gender analysis includes findings on division of labor, access to and control over productive assets, participation in farmers' groups, and other important gender issues. CARE Tanzania is launching a major initiative targeting ‘Women and Agriculture (WAA)’ in Southern Tanzania that will promote pro-poor and gender sensitive approach to economic development and management of natural resources.

Good Practices in Gender and Agriculture: Examples from CARE Cuba and CARE Zimbabwe

CARE Cuba is small but mighty! One of the things CARE Cuba's done a mighty good job on over the last three years is the integration of gender strategies into Ministry of Agriculture line departments. This PowerPoint shows how CARE Cuba used broad coalitions, participatory planning and existing government channels to see the succesful adoption of gender policies in forestry, dairy and cattle boards.

What difference does a gender sensitive value chain analysis make on our agricultural business development programming? How do we know if we're changing markets to work for the poor or if the poor are working for markets? CARE Zimbabwe and CARE Canada looked at these two questions when evaluating gender results in the Agribusiness Entrepreneur Network and Training (AGENT) project in January, 2012. This PowerPoint presentation focuses on gender dynamics in the business cycle of agriculture entrepreneurs.

Bonus Presentation: on good practices in education programming in Zambia if you follow the same link as for the CARE Zimbabwe presentation.

A Place to Grow

For all “A Place to Grow” documents, please see:'s%20Agriculture%20Projects&View%7B4CC6E245-821C-4AB5-B6DF-3294038F4922%7D

Document Abstract
The Growing Place_Ghana_September_2008 “This update focuses on the recent work undertaken with CARE and its partners and beneficiaries in Ghana. It highlights some of the emerging issues, opportunities, and challenges of addressing gender equality and women’s empowerment in Ghana’s Agricultural and Natural Resources (ANR) Program. A more detailed account will be available soon through reports, case studies, and learning materials.” Excerpt from The Growing Place_Ghana
Women's empowerment and gender equality in ghana
Knowledge sharing_Entebbe Circle of Learning 2009.pdf
care_-_men_and_farming.pdf Article about men, gender equity and agriculture. To learn more about engaging men & boys in gender equality, visit: Engaging Men & Boys

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

In a three-year collaborative effort, the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) jointly produced the Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook which draws from the operations of the three agencies.

The Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook presents a rich compilation of experiences, some of them ongoing, in which agricultural projects have incorporated gender-related components or adapted their operations to allow for gender variables and engage issues that affect men and women differently. These very often carry great practical consequence for the respective potentials of men and women as agricultural producers. The experiences chronicled capture a rich blend of hopeful innovations and cautionary lessons about the importance of avoiding the pitfalls of “gender-neutral” operations in areas in which gender issues are a salient variable in agricultural production - namely in the large majority of rural settings in low-income countries where agriculture remains a major engine of economic growth. Other lessons emerge from projects in middle income developing countries.

The Sourcebook covers 16 modules including: (1) Food Security; (2) Policy and Governance; (3) Rural Finance; (4) Land Policy and Administration; (5) Agricultural Markets; (6) Agricultural Water Management; (7) Agricultural Innovation and Education; (8) Agricultural Labor; (9) Rural Infrastructure; (10) Natural Resource Management; (11) Disaster and Post-Conflict Management; (12) Crop Agriculture; (13) Fisheries and Aquaculture; (14) Livestock; (15) Forestry; and (16) Monitoring and Evaluation.

More than 100 authors and reviewers contributed to its production, which continues after the print release of the publication on October 8, 2008. An on-line edition will serve as a “living document” to which additional chapters will be added. Post print chapters already include a note on property and inheritance rights among widows and children in households affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa, and profiles of project activities in El Salvador and labor legislation in Chile, among others.

Download the Sourcebook at

gender_agriculture_and_land.txt · Last modified: 2019/01/22 04:48 by